Endangered Species Recovery Program

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Endangered, Threatened, and Candidate Species Manual

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

Introduction - What are Endangered Species?

Endangered species are plants or animals which have become very uncommon appear to be becoming even more uncommon as time continues. If it looks like a plant or animal will become extinct if certain changes are not made, the species is listed as Endangered or Threatened by the State and/or Federal governments. Additionally, plants may be classified as Rare. The Federal Government keeps a list of species which it believes might become extinct within the United States (some are endangered in the world). State governments keep their own lists, which occasionally are different from the Federal list. For example, a particular hawk species might be very common in the Midwest, but in California it is very uncommon. California might place the hawk species on its Endangered Species list, even though it may not be on the Federal list. Usually, the two lists are very similar - they may even be the same. And sometimes there isn't enough research evidence to show that the species needs to be put on the list. As more evidence is gathered, it may be added to the list. And a few species have even been removed from the list because their chances for survival have improved and they are becoming more common than they once were.

Be aware that there are two lists that we are concerned with - the Federal Endangered Species List, and the California Endangered Species List. These two lists may be combined. You may see one or the other list - this is not a complete list! Both lists must be considered! And these lists are being changed continuously. A list one or more years old is out of date!

Reclamation has a policy to protect even State-listed species and all species that are candidates to be listed on the State and/or Federal lists. So, if it is on either list, or if it is a candidate on either list, we are to protect it.

We can protect wildlife and plants by protecting their habitats from destruction. Reduction or destruction of habitat frequently is due to city development, mining, oil drilling, logging, and farming. Habitats eventually may disappear completely because of large projects that cover many acres, or because of many small projects added together. Although some plants and animals can live in a variety of habitats, plants and animals on either of these lists, or candidates for the lists, tend to be restricted to a specific type of habitat that is disappearing. For plants and animals on the lists, and for candidates for the lists, protecting their habitats from destruction is of extreme importance.

Habitat enhancement projects are a valuable tool in maintaining habitats for all organisms. These projects sometimes involve huge acreages being carefully managed, but smaller projects are also valuable because their effects are multiplied. For example, many landowners putting in protected pipes for kit foxes to use as escape routes or as dens can have a significant and positive impact on the kit fox population. Also, many employees of an irrigation district carefully avoiding damage to existing habitats can have the same positive impact on plant and animal species living within those habitats. When it comes to protection of habitat, each person really does make a difference.

Species information

Links Status
Species Map (jpg)1 Map (pdf)1 FWS Ecos Search Natureserve Federal California CNPS CDFG CNDDB code
NATURAL COMMUNITIES natcom.jpg natcom.pdf

CRITICAL HABITATS crithab.jpg crithab.pdf


Buena Vista Lake shrew (Sorex ornatus relictus) AMABA01102.jpg AMABA01102.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered -- -- SC AMABA01102
Giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens) AMAFD03080.jpg AMAFD03080.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered -- -- AMAFD03080
San Joaquin kangaroo rats Fresno kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides exilis) AMAFD03151.jpg AMAFD03151.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered -- -- AMAFD03151
San Joaquin kangaroo rats Short-nosed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides brevinasus) AMAFD03153.jpg AMAFD03153.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC AMAFD03153
San Joaquin kangaroo rats Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides) AMAFD03152.jpg AMAFD03152.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered -- -- AMAFD03152
Riparian brush rabbit (Syvilagus bachmani riparius) AMAEB01021.jpg AMAEB01021.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered -- -- AMAEB01021
Riparian woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes riparia) AMAFF08081.jpg AMAFF08081.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered -- -- SC AMAFF08081
San Joaquin antelope squirrel (Ammospermophilus nelsoni) AMAFB04040.jpg AMAFB04040.pdf
Natureserve -- Threatened -- -- AMAFB04040
San Joaquin pocket mouse (Perognathus inornatus) AMAFD01061.jpg AMAFD01061.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- -- AMAFD01061
San Francisco dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes annectens) AMAFF08082.jpg AMAFF08082.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC AMAFF08082
San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) AMAJA03041.jpg AMAJA03041.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Threatened -- -- AMAJA03041
Tulare grasshopper mouse (Onychomys torridus tularensis) AMAFF06021.jpg AMAFF06021.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC AMAFF06021
BIRDS ABNJB05035.jpg ABNJB05035.pdf
Natureserve Delisted -- -- -- ABNJB05035
Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia)

Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) ABNKC10010.jpg ABNKC10010.pdf
Natureserve Delisted Endangered -- -- ABNKC10010
Bank swallow (Riparia riparia) ABPAU08010.jpg ABPAU08010.pdf
Natureserve -- Threatened -- -- ABPAU08010
California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) ABNKA03010.jpg ABNKA03010.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered -- -- ABNKA03010
Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperi) ABNKC12040.jpg ABNKC12040.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- -- ABNKC12040
Ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) ABNKC19120.jpg ABNKC19120.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- -- ABNKC19120
Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) ABNKC22010.jpg ABNKC22010.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- -- ABNKC22010
Greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) ABNMK01014.jpg ABNMK01014.pdf
Natureserve -- Threatened -- -- ABNMK01014
Le Conte's thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei) ABPBK06100.jpg ABPBK06100.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ABPBK06100
Least Bell's vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) ABPBW01114.jpg ABPBW01114.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered -- -- ABPBW01114
Loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) ABPBR01030.jpg ABPBR01030.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ABPBR01030
Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) ABNKD06071.jpg ABNKD06071.pdf
Natureserve Delisted Endangered -- -- ABNKD06071
Prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus) ABNKD06090.jpg ABNKD06090.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- -- ABNKD06090
Mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) ABNNB03100.jpg ABNNB03100.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ABNNB03100
Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) ABNKC12060.jpg ABNKC12060.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ABNKC12060
Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni) ABNKC19070.jpg ABNKC19070.pdf
Natureserve -- Threatened -- -- ABNKC19070
Tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) ABPBXB0020.jpg ABPBXB0020.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ABPBXB0020
Western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis) ABNRB02022.jpg ABNRB02022.pdf
Natureserve Candidate Endangered -- -- ABNRB02022
Western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugea) ABNSB10010.jpg ABNSB10010.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ABNSB10010
Western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosa) ABNNB03031.jpg ABNNB03031.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened -- -- SC ABNNB03031
White-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) ABNGE02020.jpg ABNGE02020.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- -- ABNGE02020
White-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus) ABNKC06010.jpg ABNKC06010.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- -- ABNKC06010
Willow flycatchers (Empidonax extimus ssp) ABPAE33043.jpg ABPAE33043.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered -- -- ABPAE33043

California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) AAABH01022.jpg AAABH01022.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened -- -- SC AAABH01022
California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) AAAAA01180.jpg AAAAA01180.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened Candidate Endangered -- SC AAAAA01180
Foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii) AAABH01050.jpg AAABH01050.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC AAABH01050
Western spadefoot toad (Spea hammondii) AAABF02020.jpg AAABF02020.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC AAABF02020

Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus) ARADB21031.jpg ARADB21031.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened Threatened -- -- ARADB21031
Blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia sila) ARACF07010.jpg ARACF07010.pdf
Natureserve Endangered Endangered -- -- ARACF07010
California horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronatum frontale) ARACF12022.jpg ARACF12022.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ARACF12022
Giant garter snake (Thamnophis gigas) ARADB36150.jpg ARADB36150.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened Threatened -- -- ARADB36150
San Joaquin coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum ruddocki) ARADB21021.jpg ARADB21021.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ARADB21021
Silvery legless lizard (Anniella pulchra pulchra) ARACC01012.jpg ARACC01012.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ARACC01012
Western pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) ARAAD02030.jpg ARAAD02030.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- SC ARAAD02030

Molestan blister beetle (Lytta molesta) IICOL4C030.jpg IICOL4C030.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- -- IICOL4C030
Valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicas dimorphus) IICOL48011.jpg IICOL48011.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened -- -- -- IICOL48011

California linderiella fairy shrimp (Linderiella occidentalis) ICBRA06010.jpg ICBRA06010.pdf
Natureserve -- -- -- -- ICBRA06010
Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio) ICBRA03010.jpg ICBRA03010.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered -- -- -- ICBRA03010
Longhorn fairy shrimp (Branchinecta longiantenna) ICBRA03020.jpg ICBRA03020.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered -- -- -- ICBRA03020
Vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi) ICBRA03030.jpg ICBRA03030.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened -- -- -- ICBRA03030
Vernal pool tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus packardi) ICBRA10010.jpg ICBRA10010.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered -- -- -- ICBRA10010

Alkali milk vetch (Astralagus tener var. tener) PDFAB0F8R1.jpg PDFAB0F8R1.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDFAB0F8R1
Bakersfield cactus (Opuntia basilaris var treleasei) PDCAC0D055.jpg PDCAC0D055.pdf
Natureserve Endangered Endangered 1B.1 -- PDCAC0D055
Bakersfield smallscale (Atriplex tularensis) PDCHE04240.jpg PDCHE04240.pdf
Natureserve -- Endangered 1B.1 -- PDCHE04240
Boggs Lake Hedge-hyssop (Gratiola heterosepala) PDSCR0R060.jpg PDSCR0R060.pdf
Natureserve -- Endangered 1B.2 -- PDSCR0R060
Brittlescale (Atriplex depressa) PDCHE042L0.jpg PDCHE042L0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDCHE042L0
Bush anemone (Carpenteria californicus) PDHDR04010.jpg PDHDR04010.pdf
Natureserve -- Threatened 1B.2 -- PDHDR04010
California jewelflower (Caulanthus californicus) PDBRA31010.jpg PDBRA31010.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered 1B.1 -- PDBRA31010
Caper-fruited tropicocarpum (Tropicocarpum capparideum) PDBRA2R010.jpg PDBRA2R010.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.1 -- PDBRA2R010
Colusa grass (Neostapfia colusana) PMPOA4C010.jpg PMPOA4C010.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened Endangered 1B.1 -- PMPOA4C010
Delta coyote-thistle (Eryngium racemosum) PDAPI0Z0S0.jpg PDAPI0Z0S0.pdf
Natureserve -- Endangered 1B.1 -- PDAPI0Z0S0
Diamond-petaled poppy (Eschscholzia rhombipetala) PDPAP0A0D0.jpg PDPAP0A0D0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.1 -- PDPAP0A0D0
Earlimart orache (Atriplex erecticaulis) PDCHE042V0.jpg PDCHE042V0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDCHE042V0
Fleshy owl's-clover (Castilleja campestris succulenta) PDSCR0D3Z1.jpg PDSCR0D3Z1.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened Endangered 1B.2 -- PDSCR0D3Z1
Greene's tuctoria (Tuctoria greenei) PMPOA6N010.jpg PMPOA6N010.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Rare 1B.1 -- PMPOA6N010
Hairy orcutt grass (Orcuttia pilosa) PMPOA4G040.jpg PMPOA4G040.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered 1B.1 -- PMPOA4G040
Hartweg's golden sunburst (Pseudobahia bahiifolia) PDAST7P010.jpg PDAST7P010.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered 1B.1 -- PDAST7P010
Heartscale (Atriplex cordulata) PDCHE040B0.jpg PDCHE040B0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDCHE040B0
Hispid bird's beak (Cordylanthus mollis hispidus) PDSCR0J0D1.jpg PDSCR0J0D1.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.1 -- PDSCR0J0D1
Hoover's calycadenia (Calycadenia hooveri) PDAST1P040.jpg PDAST1P040.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.3 -- PDAST1P040
Hoover's spurge (Chamaesyce hooveri) PDEUP0D150.jpg PDEUP0D150.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened -- 1B.2 -- PDEUP0D150
Hoover's woolly-star (Eriastrum hooveri) PDPLM03070.jpg PDPLM03070.pdf
Natureserve Delisted -- 4.2 -- PDPLM03070
Hospital Canyon larkspur (Delphinium californicum ssp. Interius) PDRAN0B0A2.jpg PDRAN0B0A2.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDRAN0B0A2
Kaweah Brodiaea (Brodiaea insignis) PMLIL0C060.jpg PMLIL0C060.pdf
Natureserve -- Endangered 1B.2 -- PMLIL0C060
Keck's checkerbloom (Sidalcea keckii) PDMAL110D0.jpg PDMAL110D0.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered -- 1B.1 -- PDMAL110D0
Kern mallow (Eremalche kernensis) PDMAL0C031.jpg PDMAL0C031.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered -- 1B.1 -- PDMAL0C031
King's gold (Twisselmannia californica) PDBRA33010.jpg PDBRA33010.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.1 -- PDBRA33010
Large-flowered fiddleneck (Amsinckia grandiflora) PDBOR01050.jpg PDBOR01050.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered 1B.1 -- PDBOR01050
Legenere (Legenere limosa) PDCAM0C010.jpg PDCAM0C010.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.1 -- PDCAM0C010
Lesser saltscale (Atriplex minuscula) PDCHE042M0.jpg PDCHE042M0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.1 -- PDCHE042M0
Little mousetail (Myosurus minimus ssp. apus) PDRAN0H031.jpg PDRAN0H031.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 3.1 -- PDRAN0H031
Livermore tarplant (Deinandra bacigalupii) PDAST4R0V0.jpg PDAST4R0V0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDAST4R0V0
Lost Hills saltbush (Atriplex vallicola) PDCHE04250.jpg PDCHE04250.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDCHE04250
Mason's lilieopsis (Liliaeopsis masonii) PDAPI19030.jpg PDAPI19030.pdf
Natureserve -- Rare 1B.1 -- PDAPI19030
Merced Phacelia (Phacelia ciliata opaca) PDHYD0C0S2.jpg PDHYD0C0S2.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDHYD0C0S2
Mt. Diablo phacelia (Phacelia phaceliodes) PDHYD0C3Q0.jpg PDHYD0C3Q0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDHYD0C3Q0
Mt. Hamilton coreopsis (Coreopsis hamiltonii) PDAST2L0C0.jpg PDAST2L0C0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDAST2L0C0
Munz's tidy-tips (Layia munzii) PDAST5N0B0.jpg PDAST5N0B0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDAST5N0B0
Palmate-bracted bird's beak (Cordylanthus palmatus) PDSCR0J0J0.jpg PDSCR0J0J0.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered Endangered 1B.1 -- PDSCR0J0J0
Recurved larkspur (Delphinium recurvatum) PDRAN0B1J0.jpg PDRAN0B1J0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDRAN0B1J0
San Joaquin adobe sunburst (Pseudobahia peirsonii) PDAST7P030.jpg PDAST7P030.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened Endangered 1B.1 -- PDAST7P030
San Joaquin Valley orcutt grass (Orcuttia inaequalis) PMPOA4G060.jpg PMPOA4G060.pdf ECOS Natureserve Threatened Endangered 1B.1 -- PMPOA4G060
San Joaquin woolly-threads (Monolopia (=Lembertia) congdonii) PDASTA8010.jpg PDASTA8010.pdf
Natureserve Endangered -- 1B.2 -- PDASTA8010
Sanford's Arrowhead (Sagittaria sanfordii) PMALI040Q0.jpg PMALI040Q0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PMALI040Q0
Showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum) PDFAB40040.jpg PDFAB40040.pdf ECOS Natureserve Endangered -- 1B.1 -- PDFAB40040
Slough thistle (Cirsium crassicaule) PDAST2E0U0.jpg PDAST2E0U0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.1 -- PDAST2E0U0
Spiny-sepaled button celery (Eryngium spinosepalum) PDAPI0Z0Y0.jpg PDAPI0Z0Y0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDAPI0Z0Y0
Striped Adobe-lily (Fritillaria striata) PMLIL0V0K0.jpg PMLIL0V0K0.pdf
Natureserve -- Threatened 1B.1 -- PMLIL0V0K0
Subtle orache (Atriplex subtilis) PDCHE042T0.jpg PDCHE042T0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDCHE042T0
Valley spearscale (Atriplex joaquiniana) PDCHE041F3.jpg PDCHE041F3.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDCHE041F3
Vernal pool smallscale (Atriplex persistens) PDCHE042P0.jpg PDCHE042P0.pdf
Natureserve -- -- 1B.2 -- PDCHE042P0

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Complete copy (PDF), 13 MB (may take long to download)

Links to GIS data used:

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